Biotechnology 1

Course Coordinator

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Course Description


Introduction – Part I. Biotechnology, bioprocess, biocatalyst (2 hours).

Introduction – Part II. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial bioprocesses. Scale of bioprocesses. Basic scheme of biotechnological process (upstream, bioprocess, downstream) (2 hours).

Biological and engineering aspects of biotechnology. An example of microbial process – Part I. Definitions of basic terms: medium, medium composition, raw materials (molasses, glucose syrup), biogenic elements (carbon and energy sources, carbon sources for biomass synthesis, nitrogen sources, phosphorus and potassium sources, sources of magnesium and sulfur), microelements. Industrial production of citric acid by mould Aspergillus niger (2 hours).  

Biological and engineering aspects of biotechnology. An example of microbial process – Part II. Preparation of medium and inoculum (upstream). Basic principles of microbial process. Aseptical techniques (batch and continuous sterilization, pasterization, hermetization) ( 2 hours).  

Biological and engineering aspects of biotechnology. An example of microbial process – Part III. Inoculation of a sterile medium, aeration, addition of antifoams, surface and submerged cultivations, trophophase and mycelial pellets formation, idiophase. Kinetics of bioprocess (scheme). Biomass dry weight and substrate to biomass conversion coefficient, substrate to product conversion coefficient, volumetric productivity, efficiency of the bioprocess (2 hours).

Biological and engineering aspects of biotechnology. An example of microbial process – Part IV.  Bioprocess for citric acid production: downstream. Definition of basic terms: broth filtration, precipitation, rotary drum vaccum filter. Capacities for citric acid production worldwide (2 hours).

Biological and engineering aspects of biotechnology. „New biotechnology“ – Introduction. Main characteristics of different industrial microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, moulds and higher fungi,algae, viruses) and their employment in production of: (yeast) biomass, organic acids (citric and other acids), enzymes (e.g. amylases and pectinases) and rennet; then antibiotics, ethanol (i.e. wines, beers, ciders, brandys), proteins, products of dairy industry, etc. Extremophiles. Overwiev of microbial processes -use of: acetic acid bacteria (e.g. production of acetic acid and vitamine C), Streptomyces sp. (secondary metabolites), Clostridium sp. (acetone,butanole and other), Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rDNA technology (production of insuline, growth hormone, interferone, leukines, vaccines) (2 hours).   

„New biotechnology“ – Part I. Central dogma of molecular biology, transcription and translation. Main principles of genetical engineering (DNA, gen, restriction enzymes, palindromic sequences, vectors - plasmides, ligases, transformation, hybrid DNA). Bioprocesses based on rDNA technology (2 hours). 

„New biotechnology“ – Part II. Genetically modified organisms (GMO): genetically modified plants (soy, corn, wheat, …) and their resistance to herbicides and pests. Genetically modified animals. Overview of biotechnological industrial products (biomass, primary and secondary metabolites, enzymes and other proteins). Wastewater treatment and bioremediation. Animal cell cultures: principle and production of high value products (therapeutic proteins, alcaloids, …). Hibridoma technologies for antibody production.

„New biotechnology“ – Part III. Enzyme-catalyzed processes.An exapmle of enzyme-catalyzed process – production of high fructose syrup by immobilized biocatalyst: sheme of bioprocess, medium, fixed bed bioreactor, parameters of bioprocess. Enzyme immobilization.

Definition of biotechnology, traditional and „new“ biotechnology. Four main biotechnologies: red, green, white and blue biotechnology and trends.


  • define basic terms in the field of biotechnology, biochemical engineering and genetical engineering
  • describe and explain basic scheme of bioprocess (selection of substrates and/or raw materials, growth phases of microorganism, conditions suitable for certain bioprocesses, e.g. aerobic or anaerobic, batch or fed batch, different scales of bioprocess) by using production of citric acid as an example 
  • recall given examples of bioprocesses catalyzed by microbial cells as biocatalysts – industrially relevant bacteria, yeasts and moulds
  • describe central dogma of molecular biology and basic principles of genetic engineering as well as their application in bioprocesses based on recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology 
  • describe bioprocess for high fructose syrup production as an typical example of enzyme-catalysed process
  • describe basic characteristics of plant and animal cell cultures, describe in short history and trends in biotechnology